A Case Study Of Rainwater Harvesting Structures Environmental Sciences Essay

Feasibility of reaping H2O at Konkamthan Village in Ahmednagar District of Maharashtra State is studied utilizing annually rainfall informations. It is said that “ H2O is life ” because, the H2O is required from birth to decease for human being. In the planetary image, India is identified as a state where H2O scarceness is expected to turn well in the coming decennaries. Further drought status, climatic variableness cause considerable human enduring in many parts of the state in the signifier of scarceness of H2O for both satisfaction of imbibing demands and irrigation demands. The consequences of adult male made crisis be seen as planetary heating and alteration in climatic conditions. The rain has become irregular because of perturbation in natural rhythm and hence do non make when one wants them.
“ A Drop Harvested is a Crop Harvested ” dictates upon the importance of rain H2O harvest home.
Thymine he measure of rainfall is fickle, decreased and unsure. Hence, demand for preservation has been felt much more than of all time before. In this survey, hydro-meteorological information is obtained from Indian Meteorological Station at Kumbhari, of Kopargaon taluka. To analyze the profile of land, study was carried out with Ttotal Station. Contour sheet was plotted with scale 1 ” to 160 ‘ at 0.5 m contour interval. The infiltration rate of dirt was studied by dual ring infiltrometer. Depending upon design demands different overflow reaping constructions, like contour bunding, compartment bunding, nalah bunding and farm lb has been suggested. The survey shown that with the aid of reaping constructions 60 to 70 % of rainfall can be harvested.

Cardinal words: Annually rainfall, Rain H2O reaping constructions, planetary heating, Entire Stationss, Profile, Contour, Infiltration, Double pealing infiltrometer.
Introduction:
It is good known that, the land force per unit area is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours due to population growing, doing the more and more H2O is required for domestic, agribusiness and industrial intents. At every topographic point there is ground H2O, but its geographic expedition needs money, as a consequence it becomes a restraint, nevertheless there are other restraints such as rainfall form, handiness of surface overflow and storage of H2O. Hence rain H2O reaping constructions are indispensable for effectual use of extra rainfall.
Rainwater harvest home is the knowing aggregation of rainwater from a surface and its subsequent storage in order to provide H2O during the clip of demand. Rain-water harvest home is indispensable in position of the fact that rainfall, which is a beginning of fresh H2O, occurs in every short enchantments and runs off as a waste unless agreements are made for its storing ( NIH,1993 ) .
In the present survey effort has been made to analyze the topography of the country, based on study work carried out utilizing entire Stationss. Besides the rainfall form for six old ages and dirt strata has been studied. The rain H2O reaping constructions were proposed based on topography, rainfall form, climatic conditions, and geological characteristics of the survey country.
Site Detailss:
The location of site is at Kokamthan, 03 km off from Kopargaon, District Ahmednagar. The Latitude and
Departure of Sanvatsar small town are 190 54 ‘ N and 740 33 ‘ E severally. The country under probe is about 125 estates.
River
GODAVARI
COMPOUND WALL
74.00 m
PIMPLE TREE
Nitrogen
19.45 m
ST-1
Figure-1: Site Detailss
Data Collection:
The informations aggregation portion of the country under probe has been loosely carried out in two parts,
1 ] Topographical surveies
2 ] Hydrological surveies
Survey Record: –
The study for the proposed site has been carried out with the aid of Entire Station DTM-352 and R.Ls of 405 Stationss are determined and listed in the tabular array below.
Table-1 [ Sample record of observations ]
Obs. no.
Northing
Easting
R.Ls
Description
1
0
0
100
ST1
2
-70.6743
-24.8749
98.5763
WC
3
-63.305
-35.5295
98.5771
RC1
4
-34.5137
-58.375
98.6694
RVC1
5
-27.3761
-34.3426
98.5275
RC2
6
-26.4177
-21.1967
98.363
WC2
Based on entire station observations, the Contour map has been prepared with a contour interval of 0.5m. , as shown in figure-3. It is observed that the elevational difference in the surveyed country in two terminals is about 2m.
Rainfall Data: – The rainfall informations of last 20 old ages was obtained from the Irrigation Department and Indian Meteorological Department, Jeur Kumbhari. The information is tabulated as below and rainfall tendency has been observed as shown in figure-2.
Table-2 [ 20 Year rainfall informations ]
Year
Rainfall ( millimeter )
1987-88
520.4
1988-89
610.8
1989-90
715.6
1990-91
680.5
1991-92
500.4
1992-93
560.1
1993-94
180.4
1994-95
270.2
1995-96
165.8
1996-97
650.9
Year
Rainfall ( millimeter )
1997-98
353.6
1998-99
501.3
1999-00
311.5
2000-01
504.8
2001-02
477.2
2002-03
531.3
2003-04
376.6
2004-05
455.2
2005-06
484.4
2006-07
761.9
Figure- : 2 Rainfall Pattern.
Structures.
Figure- : 3 Contour Plan demoing RWH Structures.
Proposed Action Plan:
To plan the rain H2O reaping constructions, the rainfall, overflow, vaporization and ooze informations are basically required but these are by and large non available for most of the sites, nevertheless if these are available, the cost of an extended hydrologic probe is rarely justified. However, based on few chief factors impacting the design, a general guideline has been followed to plan the contour bund, compartment bund and nalah bund.
Water harvest home and overflow recycling has four distinguishable constituents, viz. , aggregation ( reaping ) of surplus rainfall, efficient storage of harvest H2O, H2O application ( including lifting and conveyance ) and optimal use of applied H2O for maximal benefits.
Based on the catchment country, rainfall, land incline and overflow volume, the suitableness demands of the farm pool has been proposed to build on both right and left side of the probe country.
Decision:
The basic thought behind rainwater harvest home is that the rainfall in India is extremely seasonal, with most of the precipitation happening within a few months of the twelvemonth and within that period the strength, being concentrated within a few hebdomads, that precipitation is besides extremely variable between different parts of the state and from twelvemonth to twelvemonth, that ‘s why it is necessary to hive away rainwater with assorted constructions suited for that country.
The principal concern in set abouting this undertaking is to reload the land H2O, run into the industrial demand, protecting agribusiness from the vagaries of the monsoon, and carry through the domestic demand and to command the inundations to a certain extent.
The elaborate contour study of country under probe at Sanvatsar was carried out with the aid of entire Station and contour sheet was plotted. By analyzing the dirt features, metrological factors, infiltration rate and land incline of the country under probe, we have suggested the contour bunding, compartment bunding, farm pool and nalah bunding as the rain H2O reaping constructions suited for that country. Looking into the different losingss and other factors it can besides be concluded that approximately 70 % of the rain falling in that country can be harvested.
Looking into the scarceness of H2O and high energy input for H2O supply strategy, it should be made compulsory to implement such rain H2O reaping techniques so that the job of H2O scarceness can be minimized.

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