Archetype and Nationalism in Tolkien’s Silmarillion

ABSTRACT This thesis demonstrates the relationship of fantasy fiction, archetypes, and nationalism in one of fantasy fiction, namely Tolkien’s The Silmarillion. Fantasy fiction, with the stereotype of escapism, is less appreciated. This thesis is written in attempt to give more appreciation to fantasy fiction. Analysis to show the relationship of fantasy fiction, archetype, and nationalism is carried out by applying archetypal approach and Frye’s concept of mythos. This analysis is aimed at determining the position of the story in Frye’s mythos taxonomy and its values.
The values, then, are compared with values found in English nationalistic discourse. The result of this analysis indicates that the story of The Silmarillion can be classified as tragic mythos. However, tragedy in the Silmarillion is elaborated differently from the characteristics of the mythos suggested by Frye. Tragedy of The Silmarillion is collective in its nature. The uniqueness of tragedy in The Silmarillion is read as representation of fellowship spirit value in English nationalistic discourse.
The Silmarillion also shows wisdom and historical continuity values parallel with values found English nationalistic discourse. From these values The Silmarillion shows that pastoral life with its collectivity, wisdom and tranquility as an ideal life for English people. Keywords: fantasy, archetypes, nationalism, Tolkien v ABSTRAK Tesis ini menunjukkan keterkaitan fiksi fantasi, arketipe, dan nasionalisme yang muncul di dalam salah satu karya sastra fantasi, yaitu The Silmarillion karya J. R. R . Tolkien.

Fiksi fantasi, dengan stereotip sebagai fiksi yang dianggap hanya memberikan tempat untuk melarikan diri dari kenyataan dan fiksi yang lepas dari nilai-nilai realitas, kurang mendapat apresiasi yang cukup. Untuk memberikan apresiasi terhadap fiksi fantasilah tesis ini ditulis. Analisis untuk menunjukkan keterkaitan fiksi fantasi, arketipe dan nilainilai nasionalisme pertama-tama dilakukan dengan melakukan analisis plot cerita dengan menggunakan pendekatan arketipe dan teori mythos Northrop Frye. Analisis plot ini dilakukan untuk menentukan posisi cerita di dalam taksonomi mythos Frye dan nilai-nilai yang dikandungnya.
Nilai-nilai ini kemudian akan dibandingkan dengan nilai-nilai yang ada dalam wacana nasionalisme Inggris (England). Dari analisis yang dilakukan terlihat bahwa cerita The Silmarillion tergolong dalam mythos tragedi. Namun, sifat tragedi dalam The Silmarillion berbeda dari ciri mythos tragedi Frye yang terkonsentrasi pada satu individu. Tragedi dalam The Silmarillion bersifat kolektif. Keunikan tragedi di dalam The Silmarillion ini dianggap mewakili nilai kebersamaan yang juga merupakan salah satu nilai keinggrisan dalam wacana nasionalisme Inggris.
The Silmarillion juga menunjukkan nilai-nilai kebijaksanaan dan keberlanjutan sejarah yang di dalam wacana nasionalisme Inggris dianggap merupakan nilai-nilai yang khas Inggris. Dari nilai-nilai dalam The Silmarillion yang paralel dengan nilai-nilai dalam wacana nasionalisme Inggris tergambar bahwa kehidupan ideal Inggris adalah kehidupan pedesaan yang penuh kebersamaan, kebijaksanaan, ketenangan dan memiliki keberlanjutan sejarah. Kata kunci: fantasi, arketipe, nasionalisme, Tolkien vi

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