Challenge Questions

 
Select the statement that is true of deductive arguments.

a.)Most reasoning is deductive.
b.)A prediction of an event is an example of a deductive argument.
c.)Inferences rely on definition and form.
d.)The inferential claim is one of less-than-logical certainty.

 
Humans have used horses for transportation for millions of years.
Therefore, they will use horses for transportation next year.

Evaluate the argument and select the answer option that describes it.

a.)inductive, weak, cogent
b.)inductive, strong, uncogent
c.)deductive, invalid, unsound
d.)deductive, valid, sound

 
Select the FALSE statement about the “Apology.”

a.)The “Apology” demonstrates that Socrates was willing to live and die according to his philosophy.
b.)In the “Apology,” Socrates explains that we must do what we think is right, despite any negative personal consequences.
c.)In the “Apology,” Socrates willingly accepts his sentence of death because he believes it is the right thing to do.
d.)In the “Apology,” Socrates argues that death is never a justifiable sentence for crimes because mortals should not act as gods.

 
Consider the following passage:

“Voting, we are told, is a both a privilege and a duty of good citizens. Therefore we might expect that all citizens in a free society would want to vote, but voter turnout in recent presidential elections has hovered around 60%. However, that doesn’t mean that 40% of eligible voters are lazy or apathetic. Some of them may have good reasons for not voiting. For some, not voting may be a form of political expression (e.g., to protest a corrupt political system). It might also be a specific rejection of current presidential candidates. In either case, not voting can be a form of democratic participation that is just as legitimate as voting.”

Which of the following best summarizes the main argument of the passage?

a.)Voting is something that all good citizens should do. Therefore, it is the basis of democracy.
b.)Voting can be just as meaningful as not voting. Therefore, only 60% of people vote.
c.)There are many reasons why citizens don’t vote. Therefore, we should try to understand those reasons.
d.)Not voting can be a form of political protest. Therefore, it is possible to be a good citizen and not vote.

 
Select the statement that represents one of the main points made by Socrates in the “Crito.”

a.)It would be immoral for Socrates to escape, but it would not be a violation of the law.
b.)Because Athens has provided benefits to Socrates, he must accept the punishment given to him.
c.)If Socrates accepted death, he would have violated the social contract because he would no longer be able to benefit Athens by teaching its youth.
d.)All life, regardless of how it is lived, is valuable and must be protected, no matter the cost.

 
Which statement best describes Socrates’ beliefs about death, as they are expressed in the “Phaedo?”

a.)Only when body and soul are united can philosophers see the world as it truly is.
b.)After death, the body and soul remain united, so life and death are one and the same.
c.)Death is nothing more than the separation of the body from the soul.
d.)Philosophers should fear death because it is the end of life of the body, and of the soul.

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