DBQ – The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution of the sixteen and seventeenth century were affected greatly from the contributions of the opposing voice and ideas of the Church and their disagreement with the uprising of scientific studies. Despite the rejection from the Church, the Scientific Revolution was heavily influenced by those in society who felt differently, and believed the benefits the Scientific Revolution would bring. This view however, was unequally agreed in when it came to the view of it politically.
Still during the sixteenth and seventeenth century, religious and the Church played a great role in the ways of people. Till the time of the Scientific Revolution, many things were not questioned, but once scientists began to question the traditional beliefs, many people of the church were outraged and spoke openly against it. Even people like Copernicus, who was the great contributor to the heliocentric idea, denied himself and submitted to the church even dedicating a part of his book to Pope III which showed his fear and actions in pleasing the pope to avoid condemnation. doc. 1) His situation greatly exemplified how the Scientific Revolution although was growing but many times stunted because of fear from the disapproval from the Church. Italian monk Giovanni Ciampoli also expressed his disapproval in a letter to Galileo stating with much urgency that the nature of the world should just be left alone for the Scripture to explain it and that man should not go about their ways to reason why. (doc. 3) Similar to Copernicus, Walter Charleton a English doctor and natural philosopher who studied the balance of science and religious.
He makes it clear that science is only possible with religion. Although he does not completely push the idea of scientific studies, he does believe it is only possible with the power of God. (doc. 8) The conclusion as you interpret out of Charleton is that no matter what man upholds through science or ideas are not sufficient enough to differ or oppose what God determines it to be. The views of secular people and society also bought about significant influence upon the Scientific Revolution, but just on the other side of the scale.
Francis Bacon, a English philosopher of science made it evident in his advocacy of science. In fact, in the document, he expresses his eagerness of the goal people need to bring achievement in human society. (doc. 4) The document shows that despite the lack of support from the church was given, many people chose to stray away tradition and venture out into new ideas. Another document that poses the same suggestion as Bacon as to improving the community of scientific studies was that of Henry Oldenbury, Secretary of the English Royal Society in his letter to Johannes Hevelius.
Oldenbury emphasizes the need in cooperation, and that scientists shouldn’t just focus on one’s study, put into consideration with the studies of others to develop the education of science. (doc. 6) Oldenbury in saying “friendship among learned men is a great aid to the investigation and elucidation of the truth” only shows him hinting that a society of scientist should be raised. Both Bacon and Oldenbury were men during the seventeenth century who viewed science as a way to improve and enhance society, but others had a different view.
Margaret Cavendish’s Observations on Experimental, shows her demand in questioning why women were not allowed to be a part of the revolution and contribute as men could, and her willingness in building upon the study of natural philosophy of women if she were allowed. (doc. 9) Her partake show’s that the influences of the Scientific Revolution did not solely come from different men of different social communities, but it had even spread to the other gender, which shows involvement. Political figures serve as a voice and power of the people in their society. In this case, politics took a great part in the uprise of the Scientific Revolution.
Document 5 is a letter from French monk Marin Mersenne to his noble patron in which he asks for the approval of his patron on his statements based on his experiments. His letter expresses a sense of meekness and humbleness Mersenne has for his patrons. He feels pressure in doing things correctly for his patrons, and is hindered from sharing what he has experimented on without winning the approval from his patrons. The power of political figures still remained throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth century, which from this document, shows how some studies were hindered because of the political authority.
Political influences on scientific studies included personal beliefs on how scientific research should be controlled and suppressed. Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher believed that any scientific findings that would interfere with the authority of rulers should be rid of. (doc. 7) Hobbes, a strong believer in an absolute monarch emphasized the power of rulers to overpower the research of scientists. Unlike other documents, the depiction of the drawing that commemorated Louis XIV’s visit to the French Royal Academy, although not a very reliable source still portrayed how Louis XIV’s support in the scientific studies.
Since a ruler takes up such a huge part in a country, the people of the country, in this case France, would naturally follow in the steps of their ruler. Louis XIV from this painting would’ve initiated a message that showed The work of scientists were affected by religious, social, and political ideas and influences in the sixteenth and seventeenth century. All these affected in ways that encouraged the study of science, while others felt that all scientific research should be stopped and suppressed.
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