Discussion Board Forum 5- CJUS 703 Reply 2

Respond with 150 words and 2 references with 1 being the textbook, biblical reference

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Cullen, F. T., & Jonson, C. L. (2017). Correctional theory: Context and consequences (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN: 9781506306520.

Cullen and Jonson (2017) pose a creative though experiment when they ask the question, “If you wanted returning inmates to commit a lot of crimes, what would you do?” (p. 217). They continue by listing certain factors such as not providing appropriate rehabilitation or money, and then imparting barriers upon them once they are “free”. While seemingly a rhetorical question, it makes the reader realize that these factors are exactly what reentry has been comprised of throughout the years for many prisoners trying to assimilate with society. The problem of reentry, as it has been phrased, became apparent through the repetitive failures of prisoners to successfully integrate themselves into society. The rates of recidivism were, and have been, shockingly high and Cullen and Jonson (2017) have identified several issues with this public-policy concern.

The problem of reentry is inextricable tied to the problem of mass imprisonment 
Prisons do not seem to reduce the criminality of inmates, making offenders’ return to the community problematic 
Reentry is hampered by the lack of treatment services available to prisoners prior to release-and then after release 
A final component of the reentry problem consists of the array of barriers that prisoners face upon release that parole authorities and state policy makers more generally are ill-prepared to address (p. 212-215). 

These factors are critical to understand when evaluating further reentry measures. First, the number of prisoners being released is directly tied to mass imprisonment in the first place. This is common sense math, with more people being locked up, more are being released after they serve their “time”. Furthermore, prisons are not designed to make people less “criminal”, and the rehabilitation services needed to do so are seldom authentically offered during and after incarceration. Finally, barriers set in place which makes employment, voting, and other facets of the free world nearly impossible for convicts to succeed upon reentry.
                I found Ephesians 4:28 somewhat relevant to this topic of reentry as it states, “Anyone who has been stealing must steal no longer, but must work, doing something useful with their own hands, that they may have something to share with those in need” (New International Version). I found it interesting because the barriers set up in society from being a convicted criminal severely impede one’s ability to get a “real” job so they can first help themselves. Bernard, Snipes and Gerould (2016) cover in great detail labeling theory and how devastating its effects can be for successfully reintegrating into society. This is even exponentially truer when dealing with juveniles, which has been discussed by Cox, Allen, Hanser, and Conrad (2018). Both of these texts cite the importance of the intensive rehabilitative efforts that are required to truly lower rates of recidivism, however it appears as though the United States is not willing to make the leap away from mass incarceration and well organized rehabilitation.
References
Bernard, T. J., Snipes, J. B., & Gerould, A. L. (2016). Volds theoretical criminology (7th ed.). New York:
     Oxford University Press.
Cox, S. M., Allen, J. M., Hanser, R. D., & Conrad, J. J. (2018). Juvenile justice: a guide to theory, policy, and
     practice (9th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.

Cullen, F. T., & Jonson, C. L. (2017). Correctional theory: context and consequences. Los Angeles:
     SAGE.

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