250 words agree or disagree
Please discuss the various limitations involving the efficiency of the intelligence cycle. Do not make all your points about just one of the readings. Please ensure that you make appropriate use, in-text citation, and reference to available source information to support your perspective (be sure to include why you consider these issues important).
Intelligence Cycle
The Central Intelligence Agency (2013) has describe the intelligence cycle as the following:
Planning and Direction – essentially understanding what to do and how to do it
Collection – Collecting information overtly or covertly through different means
Processing – Put the collected intelligence into a report
Analysis and Production – Read and analyze the information and understand what is needed and what isn’t and produce a product in a way that will be easily read and understood by the customer (give assessments)
Dissemination – Give the final product to the requestor / customer and ensure that those who need to know receive it
National standards and guidelines vs policies and procedures of agencies
Carter, Chermak, McGarrell, Carter, and Drew (2012) indicated in their findings that
…respondents indicated that they were familiar with national standards and guidelines, they also expressed the belief that the policies and procedures within their agency have yet to reconcile with these requirements. Similarly, the respondents noted they were aware of the threats, but identified a need to build a capacity to better identify these threats and noted shortages in resources and personnel in accomplishing these goals. Also, they were aware of key civil rights and privacy issues, but respondents reported there is considerable work that needs to be done in their agencies to ensure agencies are fully compliant
Because of these setbacks, the intelligence cycle cannot be 100% efficient due to analysts attempting to understand which sets of policies to follow (will it be their respective agency’s ones or the national standards?). Also, this would also come into question as to there being any backlash if one set is followed but not the other due to the different policies. As well as agencies ensuring that civil rights and privacy issues are being protected.
Acts, Laws, and Entities
Due to different laws that exist, the efficiency of the intelligence cycle to collect information is hindered. Such acts and laws would include the USA PATRIOT Act, USA FREEDOM Act, and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Law enforcement agencies before were able to wiretap conversations and obtain records regarding calls, telephone numbers, etc. that could be viable into stopping terrorist plots and gave LE agencies more tools to conduct counterintelligence (FBI, n.d.). However, due to the population not liking that LE agencies could conduct such activities, more laws and acts were passed to limit LE agencies ability to conduct such activities and required them to obtain warrants and other permissions from federal judges and the FISC to collect intelligence. This hinders the efficiency of the intelligence cycle due to analysts not being able to get the products to their intended audiences quickly and causing delays which could enable terrorists to go forth with their attacks and not be stopped and prevent the loss of human life.
Carter, D, Chermak, S, McGarrell, E, Carter, J, and Drew, J. (2012). Understanding the intelligence practices of state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies. Michigan: Michigan State University
Central Intelligence Agency. (2013). The intelligence cycle. Retrieved from
Federal Bureau of Investigations. (No date). Intelligence Branch. Retrieved from

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