Philosophy with Logic What is philosophy? Philosophy has many questions- Asking the right questions… From Greek word PHILO (Love) & SOPHIA (Wisdom) which means lover of wisdom * PHYTAGORAS, a Greek Philosopher, was the first to use the term Philosophy. * He noted that there are three types of man: a. lover of pleasure b. lover of success c. lover of wisdom * the last, according to him, is the SUPERIOR TYPE. * Wisdom here deals with the principles of things, the first cause of all beings.
It deals with an understanding on the meaning of one’s existence and the importance of things around her/ him (Socio, 2007) The chief goal of wisdom is a fundamental understanding of reality as it relates to living a good life. * We might say then, that wisdom is good judgement about complex situations. Consequently, wisdom involves reflection, insight, a capacity to learn from experience and some plausible conception of the human condition (Buenaflor, 2009). Philosophy is a search for meaning and therefore intended only for the rational beings.
He who has the why of things can bear almost any how…- Victor Frankyl Philosophy uses reason to attain its object. Whatever is one’s state in life, whenever she is and whatever she does she will always be left philosophizing. Therefore philosophy is always present. Philosophy- The science of all things by their first causes as known by the light of reason Philosophy covered all aspects of human knowledge. The early philosophers believed that philosophy is the foundation of all learning in the possibility of a total world picture and in the unity of all truths- whether scientific, ethical, religious or aesthetic.
Philosophy as subject sought to provide if not all the answers the, the answers to at least the most ultimate and fundamental questions. Why study Philosophy? The study of Philosophy is very important because it offers students a chance to explore the fundamental questions about human existence and to see exactly what thinkers in different periods have had about the essence of human being. Philosophy can help clarify our thoughts. The clearer a person thinks the more she/he expresses himself/herself and more accurate way of examining and making decisions about life.
It is philosophy that digs into the root causes of man’s problems and discovers the true solutions and remedies to human ills. Plato- The Philosopher King Why study Philosophy? Philosophy is one of the best ways of enriching your life, even as it prepares you for life. Philosophy’s critical skills offer the best defense against foolishness and falsehoods. Philosophy is one of the most practical subjects in college. Logic helps the students in the following areas: * Interpretation ; Analysis * Abstract Reasoning * Research ; Synthesis * Communications Branches of Philosophy Logic- the science of correct reasoning * Epistemology- it deals with the origin and validity of human knowledge * Metaphysics- it deals with the study of beings and the origin of things. * Theodicy- the study of God in the light of natural reason. (Philosophy of Religion) * Cosmology- the study of the universe from a philosophical viewpoint * Philosophical or Rational Psychology- the study of man not only as a thinking or sensing being but as compose of body and soul * Ethics- a philosophical study that deals with how life should be lived and the means of attaining a meaningful existence. *
Aesthetics or Philosophy of Arts- deals with the philosophical study of arts and beauty. It answers the question like What is beauty? Philosophy can also be divided into the following branches called Philosophies of Discipline * Philosophy of Persons- it deals with the study about the dignity of man, truth, freedom, justice, love, death and his relationship with others and with God. * Social Philosophy- it deals with the philosophical study of a society and its institutions. It is concerned in determining the features of the best society as it deals with the study of relationships of the human person. Philosophy of Science- This deals with the justification and objectivity of scientific knowledge. * Philosophy of mathematics- The aim of philosophy of mathematics is to provide an account of the nature and methodology of mathematics and its importance. * Philosophy of Law- This branch of philosophy deals with the why’s of the law. It also aims to guide people’s actions in political community and thereby protect basic interests or rights. * Philosophy of Education- This branch of philosophy provides a philosophical understanding of the issues in education.
It deals with the different methods of education and its effects in the learning of the human person. * Philosophy of Psychology- it deals with everyday reflections on ones thoughts and deeds and on the behavior of others * Philosophy of Religion- Study of God from a philosophical viewpoint * Philosophy of History- This branch of Philosophy is an attempt to answer substantive questions dealing with such matters as the significance or possible purpose of the historical processes and the factors fundamentally responsible for historical development and change. Philosophy of Love- this branch deals with the meaning and value of love in the human person. * Philosophy of Culture- This is the philosophical study of all aspects of human life. Its aim is to interpret and transmit to future generations the system of values. * Philosophy of Women- This is also called philosophy of feminism, which refers to the study of the legal and political rights of women, as well as the relationship between the sexes in terms of inequality, subordination, or oppression. What is the basic requirement of becoming a Philosopher? – The faculty of wonder philosophy asks the question WHY? Where did Philosophy originates? West- Greece East- China and India Factors that contribute to the development of Philosophy in Greece * Geography * Invention of Games * Invention of coins * Myths Logic Etymologically, Logic is deduced from the Greek word Logike denoting a treatise on matters pertaining to thought. The term was coined by Zeno the Stoic. St. Thomas Aquinas defines Logic as the art that directs the reasoning process so that man may attain knowledge of truth in an orderly way, with ease and without error.
As art, Logic is the tool of all sciences. The Scholastics considered it as “the art of all other arts” because it is used in every science and in every practical endeavor. As science, Logic studies the logical properties involved in the act of knowledge such as the logic of notions or concepts, the logic of judgement, the logic of reasoning and the logic of science. As science, Logic is a systematized body of logical truths and principles governing the habit of critical thinking and reasoning. History of Logic Zeno the Stoic coined the actual name Logic.
He established the rules of argumentation to clarify the nature of concepts by using the Prior and Posterior analytics of Aristotle’s logical works. This endeavor degenerated because of the clever rhetoric and subtle persuasion of the Sophists. Socrates refuted the error by vindicating the value concepts in knowing reality. Plato, the most distinguished student of Socrates, philosophized that truth is the same as the ultimate, ideal reality. Aristotle corrected this error. He wrote six treatises on Logic known as the “Organon” He stated that ideas are mental operations that exist only in the mind.
He is considered as the founder of science. Porphyrius wrote the categories of Aristotle known as “Isagoge’ Boethius translated Aristotle’s Organon and wrote commentaries on the Isagoge. Avicenna and Averroes wrote commentaries of Aristotle’s Organon Thomas Aquinas wrote commentaries on the logical works of Aristotle Francis Bacon wrote the “Novum Organon”. He introduced the Theory of Induction. John Stuart Mill developed Bacon’s “Novum Organon” Recently, George Boole founded the New Symbolic Logic . Because of its limited scope of application its popularity declined. Methods of Reasoning Inductive method- where we can obtain universal knowledge by considering the particular ex. Repeated experience of seeing falling bodies towards the ground. We may induce that this is common to all bodies. * Deductive- When we proceed from universal knowledge to particular cases ex. Logic is divided according to the three acts of the mind. * Apprehension * Judgement * Reasoning Simple Apprehension It is the basic operation of the mind or “the mental processes by which we grasp the general meaning of the thing without affirming or denying anything about it. It is the basic operation of the mind that leads to a concept; ex. man” “dog” Judgment It is the act of the mind by which we compare two concepts, either they agree or not. If we put concepts together, the end result is called judgement or proposition. Ex. Man Laughs Reasoning It is the act of the mind by which we derive new truths from previously assumed truth. The mind combines several judgments or propositions in order to arrive at a previously unknown judgment; it is called syllogism. Ex. All men are walking Cyrus is a man. Therefore Cyrus is walking. Mental Act External Sign Apprehension Term Judgement Proposition Reasoning Syllogism
Terms The term deduced from the Latin “terminus” is the extramental symbol of an idea. A term is an external expression of an idea. Ideas are mental expressions of external objects. Logical properties of terms * Comprehension of a term- It is the sum total of all the qualities / elements that comprise the meaning of the term; A manifestation of the essence of the object. It is also known as connotation. The comprehension of animal is “sentient living material substance”. * The Extension of a Term- It is the sum total of the particulars to which the comprehension of a term can be applied.
It is also known as denotation e. g. The extension of the comprehension “sentient living material substance(animal) is birds, mammals, reptiles, birds, mammals etc.. The comprehension and extension of terms are inversely related. The greater the comprehension the lesser the extension and vice-versa | Comprehension| Extension| Substance| substance| Spirits, minerals, plants, brutes,men| Body| Material substance| Minerals, plants, brutes, men| Organism| Living material substance| plants, brutes, men| Animal| Sentient living material substance| brutes, men| Man| Rational sentient living material substance| Men|
Classification of Terms I. According to Extension Extension of Terms- is defined as property of a term by which such a term is applied to other things. Terms have three extensions namely Singular, Particular and Universal * Singular Term is an extension of term that stands for a single definite individual or group. It is used to specify the individual or group. It is quantified by: * Demonstrative pronouns- This, That e. g. this book, that boy * The article “the” connotes a single idea e. g. the cup, the umbrella * Personal Pronouns- I, You, He, my, yours , he ,she Collective nouns- flock, clan, team * Particular Terms-stand for a definite part of the absolute extension. This is applied to a given part of a given group. Particular terms have the following quantifiers 1. ) Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives- Some, few, many, most, several, not all, etc. e. g. some people, most roads 2. ) Use of Numbers- seven candidates 3. ) Articles “A” and “AN” give a particular idea e. g. a saucer, an umbrella Universal terms- stands for every subject signified. This is when meaning is extended to each and every member of the group. The signs of universality are: 1. Universal Expression/Quantifiers- all, every, each, whatever, whoever, which ever, without exception, everything, no, no one etc. e. g. Ex. No man is an island; All students of Rogationist College will wear their uniform 2. ) Universal Ideas- e. g. Tomorrow is a new day; Dogs are not cats 3. ) Articles in the Universal idea- e. g. The book has pages; A snake is a dangerous creature II. According to Meaning * Univocal- it signifies the same concept or essence, in (at least) two occurrences of the term e. g. Gloria Arroyo became the President of the Republic of the Philippines; Benigno Aquino jr. s the president of the Republic of the Philippines * Equivocal Term- The term is outwardly or apparently the same but it signifies different concepts or essences. E. g. left (left hand); left ( gone); right (right hand) right (correct) * Analogous term- it expresses partly the same and partly different in meanings ex. Head does not have the same meaning in head of the family and head of a man. III. According to Quality * Positive in form, positive in meaning e. g. life, justice, truth, * Positive in form, negative in meaning e. g. murder, massacre, famine * Negative in form, negative in meaning e. g. mmature, incompetent, dishonest * Negative in form, positive in meaning e. g. immortal, unblemished IV. According to Relation * Compatible- those that can co- exist in a subject examples: wise and good; beauty and brain; rich and famous; tall, dark and handsome; * Incompatible- those that cannot co-exist in a subject. They exclude each other. There are four kinds of incompatible Ideas: * Contradictory- those that express a positive and negative concept. Contradictories are mutually exclusive such that the affirmation of one is the denial of the other. Between them, there is no third (middle) possibility.
Examples: legal-illegal; patient-impatient; literate-illiterate; valid-invalid * Contrary- those that express extremes belonging to the same class. Between these ideas, there is a third (middle) ground. Examples: rich-poor; hot-cold; kind-cruel; high-low; beautiful-ugly * Privative- two opposed ideas, one of which expresses perfection, and the other its lack which ought to be possessed. Examples: sight-blindness; truth-error; hearing-deafness; good-evil * Correlative- two opposed ideas that bear mutual relation to one another such that one can’t be understood without the other.
They imply each other because one depends the other. Examples: cause-effect; whole-part; husband wife; parent-child According to Object 1. ) Real- it expresses something that has existential actuality, whether positive or negative. Examples: clarity, temperance, scandal, unemployment, chair, table 2. ) Logical- it is used as a conceptual device to facilitate learning. Examples: subject, predicate, classification, division, phyla, genera 3. ) Imaginary- it has no correspondence in reality but is merely a concoction of the mind.
Examples: Spider man, flying carpet, darna, talking tree According to Comprehension * Concrete- the term is used to express concrete concepts such as those perceivable by the senses or whose referent is tangible. Example: ball, desk, table,brilliant lawyer * Abstract- The term is used to express abstract concepts such as those understood by the mind or whose referent is intangible. The term denotes being, quality, quantity or relationship. It denotes the property of a thing regarded as an entity by itself. Examples: humanity, dullness. Kindness
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