The Effect of AIDS on the Decline of Teenage Morality and Society’s Perception on HIV-Positive Filipinos

ABSTRACT
This research study examines the influence and effect of the increase in HIV/AIDS cases in the Philippines. It dwelled on the possibility that the rise of HIV/AIDS cases in the Philippines has a significant effect or correlation with the decline of morality on teenagers. Moreover, this study also tackled the perception of society on people who have incurred this dreadful disease. From this study, certain realizations and conclusions were formulated and most of which involves the continuous and alarming epidemic. How much of a threat is HIV/AIDS to us? More than the hazards towards one’s health, this disease has its own dangers in terms of morality and social perception.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

As we come to a closure in fulfilling this research paper, we would like to give gratitude to the people who stood by our side and gave us unending support in making this possible. As we face and conquer every obstacle that came our way, this people were always beside us to help us.
First and foremost, we would like to give glory and praise to our Almighty creator for giving us the wisdom, patience, and motivation to continue with this research paper. Whenever we are at the point of giving up, it is from him we gather the strength to stand up and move forward. Without his guiding hand, none of this would be possible. Of course, we would also like to give gratitude to our loving and understanding parents, who never got tired in reminding us to get enough rest and to take a break from time to time. For being the pillars whom stood by us, as we traverse this seemingly impossible task, they motivated us and inspired us that we could make this, thank you very much. To Mr. Leonid Lintag, our Computer Professor and at the same time the one who taught us the basics of this research paper. We give our most sincere gratitude for your relentless effort in sharing to us your knowledge about the subject matter. To our
blockmates, to whom we shared the same amount of blood, sweat and tears as we push through with this research paper. We all countless sleepless nights and through it all, we stood firm and encouraged each one that we could all make this one possible. And also, we would like to show our deepest gratitude to the respondents of our survey, whom provided as with the data we needed to complete this research paper.

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CHAPTER 1
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
INTRODUCTION:
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), since its identification in 1983, has long been a mystery to scientists both in its real origin and cure. HIV as defined by The Healthline Editorial Team is a virus contracted through sexual contact via anal, oral, or vaginal intercourse; blood exchange; shared intravenous syringes; or from mother to child during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or breast-feeding. It is believed to have originated in primates but ultimately transmitted to humans. The first cases were discovered in Africa in 1950s and 1960s, and the disease spread rapidly throughout the globe, affecting more than 36 million people by 2001.
Unlike what the majority of the people know, HIV and AIDS are two different things. HIV is the virus that may develop to AIDS. However, acquiring the HIV virus is not tantamount to having AIDS. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is name given for a variety of disease manifestations caused by HIV infection, which mainly attacks the Immune System. On the early stages of HIV infection, the patient may feel these symptoms: fever, chills, rash, night sweats, muscle aches, sore throat, fatigue and swollen lymph nodes. However, when HIV has developed into AIDS, the patient will now experience extreme fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, night sweats, and even wasting syndrome at late stages. Once diagnosed with AIDS, life expectancy is about 1-3 years, depending on the severity of the infected areas.
Based on current amFAR world statistics, 34 million are infected with HIV/AIDS and 3.3 million of them are under the age of 15. 69% of the 34 million HIV positives and 91% of the world’s HIV positive children come from the Sub-Saharan Africa. At such an alarming rate of HIV positives, Africa, still has found no evident cause or solution to the increasing number of infected people.
In the modern era, AIDS is currently alarmingly becoming widespread. Here in the Philippines, studies show that one Filipino gets HIV every 90 minutes. It is said that the Philippine HIV epidemic is now becoming a fast and
furious epidemic which is concentrated as Dr. Ferchito Avelino stated. Even more, other researches regarding HIV and AIDS reveal that the Philippines is one of the 9 countries with the most number of increasing HIV-positive victims.
With this disturbing information at hand, the researchers would like to discover the effects of this epidemic in our society. Not only does this disease pose a threat to our health, but also, apparently, it has some impact on how the society views people infected with this illness. A social stigma, as some people put it, has great influence on how people perceive those with AIDS.
More than that, it has been discovered that most of the people who are affected with this disease are teenagers. With this, the researchers would like to find out if HIV and AIDS have an effect on teenage morality. With the advent of the modern era, where most teenagers are being liberal and risky, it’s inevitable that extensive portions of the country’s population who are influenced with HIV/AIDS are teenagers. Is there an effect on their morality? How do people perceive those infected with HIV/AIDS? This research aims to shed some light on these questions in the Filipino setting.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
In accordance to the fulfilment of this research paper, the researchers aims to shed some light and give answers to the following queries which are divided into two; general and specific.
General Questions:
What is the current condition of HIV/AIDS in the Philippines? What is the status of those people infected with HIV/AIDS in the Philippines? What is the general perception of the public about AIDS/HIV and towards people inflicted with this disease?
Specific Questions:
1. Does HIV/AIDS have a significant effect on teenage morality in the
Philippines? 2. Is there a significant effect on the influence of having HIV/AIDS in the perception and treatment of people towards those with the disease?
OBJECTIVES:
With the growing and alarming effect of HIV/AIDS in our country, the researchers chose this research study which endeavors to achieve and to find out the following: 1. Find out the current status of HIV/AIDS in the Philippines. 2. Find out how HIV/AIDS affects our society and how the people inflicted with the disease are viewed and treated in the society. 3. Determine whether the rise of HIV/AIDS cases in the Philippines is tantamount to the rise in teenage immorality. 4. Gather information regarding the public’s perception and knowledge about AIDS/HIV. 5. Discover whether AIDS/HIV affects or influences teenage morality in the Philippines.
HYPOTHESIS & ASSUMPTIONS:
The researchers, with the objectives and problems already stated, came up with the following hypotheses and assumptions: 1. People who are infected with HIV/AIDS are often secluded, avoided, and judged by the society. 2. The rise of cases of HIV/AIDS is a manifestation of a decline in teenage morality. 3. There is an alarming and widespread rise of HIV/AIDS cases in the Philippines. 4. The increase in HIV/AIDS instances are indications of a deteriorating morality in the society.
SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS:
This research study is focused and limited only to the Philippines. Moreover, the scope of this research is focused on teenagers especially those who are studying in the University of Santo Tomas. Most of our respondents are college students studying in the said university and the gathered information are limited only to the Thomasian community. However, the extent of this study still extends up to the whole Philippines per se.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
It is vital and imperative to note that this study is significant and important, not only as a fulfilment for a course, but rather also for the following: This study focuses on the knowing the alarming widespread epidemic HIV/AIDS. With this, this study would serve as a warning or a call for action in our society. It is significant for those scholars studying on the same subject matter. With the rapid growth and impact of HIV/AIDS in our society, it is not impossible that it’s becoming a topic a lot of scholars would be interested to study about. To us, teenagers, which is the primary focus of this study. With this research study, it will show us the things we need to know especially in the modern age to avoid HIV/ADIS. To sociologists and medical experts who seek to discover if, by any chance, there is a relationship between having AIDS/HIV and the perception of society towards them.
This study envisions to reveal and answer some queries involving AIDS/HIV and how it affects teenage morality and moreover, how people infected with the same disease are viewed or perceived in the society. It is therefore significant in a sense because it tackles about morality and serves as a basis to determine the changes when it comes to morality, specifically that of teenagers.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:
The framework above illustrates the process in which the researchers used to get the desired outcome — the perception of teenagers on matters of HIV/AIDS. With the help of this framework, the researchers will be able to map how extensive the teens’ knowledge about the research topic is. Moreover, it will also aid in realizing how the knowledge about HIV/AIDS each individual got, created their biases, opinions and/or perception about morality of the teenagers in the current time.
DEFINITION OF TERMS:
HIV – virus contracted through sexual contact via anal, oral, or vaginal intercourse; blood exchange; shared intravenous syringes; or from mother to child during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or breast-feeding.
AIDS – acquired immune (or immuno-) deficiency syndrome: a condition, caused by a virus, in which certain white blood cells (lymphocytes) are destroyed, resulting in loss of the body’s ability to protect itself against disease. AIDS is transmitted by sexual intercourse, through infected blood and blood products, and through the placenta.
Morality – code of conduct that, given specified conditions, would be put forward by all rational persons
Perception – immediate or intuitive recognition or appreciation, as of moral, psychological, or aesthetic qualities; insight; intuition; discernment
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE:
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acute Immuno-Deficieny Syndrome (AIDS) has long been a major cause distress in many countries, especially Africa. Despite all the efforts made to annihilate the virus in Africa, HIV seemed to be resistant to all efforts and make itself more prolific in the African society. One of the major reasons for the malignant spread of the virus is the late action of their government. Add to the fact that their health budget is minimal, their people will surely suffer. If not for the help of worldwide health agencies, Africa today would have been 100% infected with HIV. However, Africa is not the only country majorly affected with AIDS. Countries like India, Kenya and even the United States top the list of countries with the highest rates of AIDS among the adult population. Asian countries like Thailand, China and Japan are also some of the countries with an alarming inflation rate of AIDS in the last 10 years. Philippines, in the recent study made in 2013, has a 79% increase in newly reported HIV cases, compared to the same period in 2012. Alarmingly, these HIV positive individuals are teenagers, ages 15-20 who engage in intravenous drug usage and those who perform unprotected sex with multiple partners. The
Philippines now is one of only two countries in Asia, and one of seven globally, where the number of new HIV cases has increased by over 25 per cent from 2001 to 2009.
How these statistics got so alarmingly high is caused by the some measures made by the state and church. Take for example “The passage of the Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act in 1998 marked a watershed in the country’s fight against HIV/AIDS. Six years later, however, implementation of this law is plagued by religious opposition to condoms, lack of political will, and deliberate government policies that interfere with the provision of complete HIV/AIDS information. HIV prevention in the Philippines is conducted in an environment both hostile to reproductive health and conducive to messages that privilege sexual abstinence over condom use. However comprehensive the AIDS law on paper, it has proved a weak match for government-promoted anti-condom policies and misinformation about HIV/AIDS”. No matter how comprehensive and advanced the measures of the government are, they are still no match for the opposition of the church. Religious sects do not approve of comprehensive reproductive health legislation and therefore minimizes the critical link between women’s health and HIV prevention. The church’s opposition to alternative birth control, like condoms and pills, greatly affect the perception of the Filipino people on safe sex. They think that not using safety measures when having sexual intercourse is fine. Based on interviews made by the Health Organizations in the Philippines, sexually active Filipinos rarely use condoms mainly because they do not know its effects and/or side effect and also because the church is against it. Wearing condoms during sexual intercourse is the number one preventive measure one can take to not acquire HIV and infect others with it. United States, one of the countries greatly promoting the use condoms, has sent some of its NGO to educate the Filipinos about safe sex and AIDS prevention. And though such seminars are being done, Filipinos who are influenced by the belief of the Catholic Church are still hard to teach and instruct. These Filipinos will continue doing what they believe is true despite being told the real truth. The church they say, is to be followed not the NGO’s or volunteers. Transmission of the virus is mainly through sexual contact, pregnancy, childbirth and Breast Feeding, Injection Drug
Use, Occupational Exposure and rarely through Blood Transfusion/Organ Transplant. HIV, which is found in specific human body fluids like the blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, breast milk, vaginal fluids and rectal mucous; and if any of those fluids enter the body, you can become infected with the virus. Being HIV positive does not equate to having AIDS. There are times when a person has HIV and still show no signs of progressing into AIDS. AIDS may take time to develop in HIV positive people. Are gay or homosexuals really more at risk of having AIDS? Based on research, gays, bisexuals, and other men who have sex with men (referred to as MSM) are more severely affected by HIV than any other group in the United States. Why is that? There is a study made between sexually active homosexuals and heterosexuals. Their sexual activities were compared and analysed carefully. It was found that heterosexuals engage in approximately five unprotected sexual intercourses every year and heterosexuals engage only in three unprotected sexual intercourses every year. If compared, gay men are more at risk because they don’t only engage two times more frequently in unprotected sex than straight men, but also because anal sex result in higher transmission rates than vaginal sex. Why is anal sex more risky than vaginal sex? Because “the tissue ; natural lubrication in the vagina ; anus are different. The vagina has 40 layers thick with cells that are stacked like bricks making it harder for the HIV virus to penetrate and get through, while the anus is ONLY 1 cell layer thick. Anal and rectal tissue also don’t provide natural lubricant (which helps to prevent tearing), which the vagina does. Additionally, while the vagina is “self-cleaning,” faeces that pass through the rectum contain bacteria, so tears in anal/rectal tissue is at a greater risk of getting infected than tears in vaginal tissue”. Heterosexual partners are not safe from AIDS either. Despite having less risk of being infected with HIV, is not safe from acquiring the virus. Vaginal fluids and breast milk of women are just some of the major carriers of the virus. It is only right for both heterosexuals and homosexual partners to observe safe sex and use condoms during sexual intercourse.
Cure for AIDS has long been researched since its development in the late 1980’s. Numerous deaths and countless infections have gone past and still not a single vaccine or cure could be developed to completely cure AIDS. In
1987, however, Food and Drug Administration of the USA approved a drug called AZT, the first of its kind introduced to treat AIDS. On February 12, 1999, Trimetrexate was the first AIDS drug to be granted pre-approval distribution status under the new Treatment IND regulations. Trimetrexate was used to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients who cannot tolerate standard forms of treatment. During the early 1990’s until the 21st century, AIDS still has no exact cure. Only vaccines and medicines used to cure AIDS-caused diseases were administered to the patients. Surprisingly, last September 2012, a vaccine created to possibly cure HIV on humans, cured the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) on monkeys. This SIV virus is said to have been the virus that started the HIV strain when it transferred to humans in the early 1980’s; and this virus is almost a 100% more deadly than the HIV virus, and monkeys typically die within two years. The vaccine called SIVmac239, used the cytomegalovirus (CMV), which is part of the herpes family. Researchers modified the virus’ natural ability to spread through the body, instead having it tell all the various parts of the immune system — particularly the T-cells that can fight off SIV infection — to target the SIV. The vaccine was firstly injected to 16 rhesus macaque monkeys. The results were overwhelming as 9 of the monkeys injected with SIVmac239 were able to fight off the infection and destroy the virus. The researchers who made the virus said that it is tough to claim eradication and that there would always be a cell which we they didn’t analyse that had the virus in it; but for most part, with very stringent criteria, there was no virus left in the body of these monkeys. Why did it cure 9 of the monkeys instead of 16? It is because whenever a vaccine or medicine is injected into the body through the blood stream, a battle ensues. ‘There are times when the vaccine wins and half the time it doesn’t’. The 7 monkeys who did not survive the vaccine simply caved into the virus and died. Researchers who created this vaccine are still developing a safer and more advanced type to be tested on humans. They are hoping that the first human clinical trials could start in two years.
In Russia however, a scientist from the Vector Institute near Novosibirsk, claimed to have found the potential cure for HIV/AIDS in the form of a mushroom called Chaga. This strain of fungi is well-known around Siberia as
a babushka, an effective cure for antiviral activity. The scientist says that this fungi contains high concentrations of Betulinic Acid which has anecdotal functions and fights inflammation and even cancer agents. The fungi Chaga is well known in Russian folklore as a very powerful dietary supplement and first aid for other mild medical concerns. In research, Chaga is found to be extremely effective in protecting cellular DNA from damaging free radicals, like the Human Immunodeficiency Virus from further damaging healthy cells.
CHAPTER 2
METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH DESIGN
The research design employed and used by the researchers is the descriptive survey method and applies the non-experimental design. This type of research design does not include random assignment or control group and thereby asserts little control over factors of an observed effect. This research design is perfectly fit for the researchers study “THE EFFECT OF AIDS ON THE DECLINE OF TEENAGE MORALITY AND THE SOCIETY’S PERCEPTION ON HIV-POSITIVE FILIPINOS”. With this research design, the researchers were able to gather the data they needed for this study.
SAMPLING DESIGN AND TECHNIQUE
The researchers used the random sampling technique as their sampling design. Using this method, the researchers were able to make sure that each and every part of the population was given equal chance to be a part of the sample. Moreover, this sampling design and technique is easy to employ, is cheap, and is proven effective.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
The research instruments used by the researchers are questionnaires for the survey, books and the internet for references.
A questionnaire is a research instrument which consists of a series of
questions with the intent of gathering data. It’s easier to distribute and it enables the respondents the privilege to answer it truthfully because it provides them with utmost confidentiality. The researchers opted to use questionnaires instead of interviews because (1) it’s easier to employ the surveys and (2) its faster and more accurate because the researchers are able to get a lot of data in a short p of time.
Questionnaires were distributed amongst randomly selected teenagers of the University of Santo Tomas. Through this, the researchers were able to gather the data they needed to further verify and validate their assumptions.
Likewise, books and the internet were utilized by the researchers in gathering data. Some journals and websites were used in this research paper.
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
The method the researchers used to gather data was to distribute surveys. The survey, which was distributed to 50 random students from the University of Santo Tomas, consists of 30 questions. Each question included in the survey is relative to the study of AIDS’ effect in the Philippine Society.
Aside from the survey, the researchers also consulted chosen books, journals, and online sources to further support their findings.
Upon the gathering of all data, the researchers juxtaposed the empirical data gathered from the survey and the theoretical data gathered from books and journals.
Conclusions derived from these data gathering shall be interpreted thereafter.
STATISTICAL TREATMENT
The researchers used mostly close-ended questions in the construction of the questionnaire. With these close-ended questions, the researchers were able to make sure that every item would be answered by the respondent because it won’t demand the same amount of effort needed in answering open-ended questions. Even more, the close-ended questions are carefully thought of by
the researchers to make sure that ever answer would be applicable and that the respondents would be objective in answering the questionnaire.
TREATMENT OF DATA
The data the researchers gathered were meticulously observed and contrasted with each other. With the help of existing information, they were able to conjure sufficient samples to compare with their gathered information and answer the questions they wanted to be answered.
Responses in each survey were tabulated and analyzed statistically using SPSS data interpreter. The tabulated statistical data was used to support the researchers’ stand that the knowledge about AIDS greatly affects the teenage Filipinos’ morality and perception of AIDS infected people.
CHAPTER 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
THE RESPONDENTS:
The respondents of the survey are all Thomasians who were randomly chosen by the researchers. A total of 50 respondents were chosen as subjects of this research and from that 50, the following data were gathered:
TABLE 1.0 AGE
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1 – 17
5
10.0
10.9
10.9
2 – 18
30
60.0
65.2
76.1
3 – 19
7
14.0
15.2
91.3
4 – 20
2
4.0
4.3
95.7
7 – 23
1
2.0
2.2
97.8
9 – 25
1
2.0
2.2
100.0
Total
46
92.0
100.0
Missing
System
4
8.0
.0
Total
50
100.0
TABLE 1.1 GENDER
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1 Male
25
50.0
50.0
50.0
2 Female
25
50.0
50.0
100.0
Total
50
100.0
100.0
TABLE 1.2 CIVIL STATUS
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1
50
100.0
100.0
100.0
The following table above show the basic information of the respondents who took the survey. The age range is from 17-25 years old and most of the respondents are 18 years old. The survey is equally answered by both genders having 25 females and 25 males as respondents. Likewise, all the respondents are reported to be single. FIGURE 1.0
The table above illustrates the current living condition of the respondents. These data shows that 32 of them are living with their parents. FIGURE 1.1
The figure above reveals the percentage, according to the researchers’ survey, of the perception of teenagers regarding AIDS/HIV. 49 or 98% of the respondents said that they would be cautious of having HIV/AIDS, while 1 or a margin of 2% said that he/she won’t care.
FIGURE 1.2
When asked if having HIV/AIDS is something to be ashamed of, a bigger portion, 55% or 28, answered “No”. 42% or 21 of the respondents on the other hand answered “Yes”, while 3% or an individual did not give any answer. TABLE 2.0 RELATIONSHIP STATUS
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1
25
50.0
50.0
50.0
2
25
50.0
50.0
100.0
Total
50
100.0
100.0
When asked of their current relationship status, the sample was divided equally into two groups. 50% or 25 of the respondents were in a relationship and another half is not.
TABLE 2.1 DO YOU HAVE MORE THAN ONE PARTNER
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1
7
14.0
14.3
14.3
2
42
84.0
85.7
100.0
Total
49
98.0
100.0
Missing
System
1
2.0
Total
50
100.0
A follow-up question was made and the respondents were asked if they have more than one partner. 14% of the sample answered they have had or is having an affair with more than one partner, while 84% honestly responded that they are loyal and faithful to their couple. The remaining 2% was a respondent who refused to answer the question. TABLE 2.2 HAVE YOU EVER HAD SEX BEFORE?
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1 Yes
9
18.0
18.0
18.0
2 No
30
60.0
60.0
78.0
3 Not Sure
11
22.0
22.0
100.0
Total
50
100.0
100.0
TABLE 2.3 HOW OLD WERE YOU WHEN YOU HAD SEX?
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1 14 below
2
4.0
22.2
22.2
2 15 – 18
6
12.0
66.7
88.9
3 18 above
1
2.0
11.1
100.0
Total
9
18.0
100.0
Missing
System
41
82.0
Total
50
100.0
The respondents were also asked if they’ve had sexual intercourse ever, 9 or 18% truthfully answered and said yes, 30 or 60% said no, and 11 or 22% answered that their doubtful and were hesitant to answer the question.
A follow up question was asked to the people who answered “Yes”, and were asked how old they were when they had their first sexual encounter. 2 of them answered they were minors back then and were below 14 years old. 6, on the other hand, said that they were between the ranges of 15-18 years old.
The last one who answered said that he was above 18 years old when he had his first sexual encounter. FIGURE 2.0
5 (10%) of the respondents answered that they considered the possibility of having a sexually transmitted disease. 31 (62%) of them were confident that they have no HIV/AIDS and 14 (28%) were unsure of the possibility.
FIGURE 2.1
When asked if they would use condoms in the future, 20 (40%) of the sample said that they would, 15 (30%) were unsure, 4 (8%) firmly said no, and 11 (22%) of the population said they still don’t know. FIGURE 2.2
When asked why would they use condoms, 15 (33%) said that it is for protection against HIV/AIDS. 3 (6%) answered it would be for protection against STI’s, 15 (33%) said it’s against pregnancy, 5 (15%) said it’s for the three causes stated above, 1 (4%) answered it’s against HIV/AIDS and pregnancy, and finally, 4 (9%) said others. FIGURE 2.3
Part of the researchers’ survey was to ask the respondents if they believe that homosexuals have a higher risk of having HIV. 13 (26%) answered that homosexuals have ultimately higher risks, 23 (46%) on the other hand said that it is not particular, 8 (16%) answered not all homosexuals have higher risk of being infected and 6 (12%) of the sample said they do not care. TABLE 3.0 DO YOU KNOW ANY ANTIDOTE FOR HIV/AIDS?
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1
8
16.0
16.0
16.0
2
42
84.0
84.0
100.0
Total
50
100.0
100.0
When asked if they know any cure or antidote for HIV/AIDS, 8 (16%) of the sample answered they know of some cure. 42 (84%) on the other hand said otherwise.
TABLE 3.1 EXPENSIVE DISEASE
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1
42
84.0
84.0
84.0
2
8
16.0
16.0
100.0
Total
50
100.0
100.0
Also when the respondents were asked if AIDS/HIV is an expensive disease based on their knowledge, 42 (84%) answered that it is while 8 (16%) said it is not. FIGURE 3.0
7 (14%) of the respondents claimed that they see those infected with HIV as an embarrassment to the country. 31 (62%) on the other hand says that sometimes, there are times that they pity those infected with the illness. The remaining 12 (24%) on the other hand, strongly said that they would never see people with this illness as an embarrassment to the country. FIGURE 3.1
The respondents were asked of their knowledge about HIV/AIDS and 8 (16%) of the respondents know that it is contagious. 7 (14%) said that they know that it weakens the human system and 1 (2%) answered that he knew it is transmitted via sexual intercourse. 31 (62%), a large portion of the respondents answered that they know that it’s contagious and that it weakens our system. The remaining 3 (6%) said that they know that HIV/AIDS is contagious, weakens our system, and is transmitted via sexual intercourse. TABLE 4.0 TRANSMISSION
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1 Sexually
22
44.0
44.0
44.0
2 Bloodstream
12
24.0
24.0
68.0
3 Others
16
32.0
32.0
100.0
Total
50
100.0
100.0
When asked if they knew how it is transmitted, 22 (44%) said that it is transmitted sexually. 12 (24%) answered it is via the bloodstream and 16 (32%) said that there are other ways of transmitting HIV/AIDS. FIGURE 4.0
22 (44%) of the respondents answered that it would greatly help if the government would create centers that would help those with HIV/AIDS. 12 (24%) said otherwise and 16 (32%) answered they do not know if it would be effective or not. TABLE 5.0 CURE FOR AIDS
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1
45
90.0
90.0
90.0
2
5
10.0
10.0
100.0
Total
50
100.0
100.0
When asked if they believe that there will still be a cure for HIV/AIDS, 45 (90%) remain optimistic and believe that there will be a cure that will be discovered for HID/AIDS. 5 (10%) on the other hand are doubtful if there would be any cure that would be discovered. FIGURE 5.0
The respondents were also asked if they consider the Philippines as one of the countries who have increasing number of HIV positives. 6 (12%) answered that Philippines is definitely in league with other countries. 19 (39%) said that not particularly, and 20 (41%) said that the rate of HIV positives is not at all a sign that the Philippines is part of the growing countries with HIV. 4 (8%) on the other hand shows no care about the matter. 1 respondent also refused to answer. FIGURE 5.1
12 (24%) the respondents believe that discipline is the key to preventing the epidemic HIV/AIDS. 17 (35%) on the other hand thinks that the concern for others would help prevent the spread of the said disease. 16 (33%) thinks of celibacy as the answer while 1 person refused to answer the question. FIGURE 5.2
The respondents were also asked how they would treat people infected with
HIV/AIDS and the following results were obtained. 10 (20%) said that they would avoid people with the disease. 17 (34%) answered that they would act normal and treat them like normal people and 22 (44%) said that they would judge those with the disease. 1 (2%) on the other hand said other means. TABLE 6.0 WHAT IF YOU HAVE AIDS, WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
1 Avoid other People
5
10.0
10.0
10.0
2 Isolate Myself
14
28.0
28.0
38.0
3 Continue with my Life
22
44.0
44.0
82.0
4 Others
9
18.0
18.0
100.0
Total
50
100.0
100.0
The respondents were also asked what they would do if they have AIDS and the following results were obtained. 5 (10%) of the sample said that they would avoid people. 14 (28%) said that they would isolate their self, and 22 (44%) said that they would just continue with their lives. 9 (18%) they would do other stuff.
FINDINGS:
In this research study, the researchers seek to find out the effects of the alarming and rapid growth of HIV/AIDS in the Philippines. The researchers would like to ascertain whether there is a significant correlation between the growth of HIV/AIDS cases in the Philippines with the decline in teenage morality.
Moreover, the researchers would like to discover how people with HIV/AIDS are perceived in the society. A lot of movies and television shows have portrayed people with HIV/AIDS as somewhat people to avoid or judge. With this, the researchers would like to find out whether it is true or not.
In order to gain substantial information and data, the following questions were formulated to guide the researchers in this study:
General Questions:
What is the current condition of HIV/AIDS in the Philippines? What is the status of those people infected with HIV/AIDS in the Philippines? What is the general perception of the public about AIDS/HIV and towards people inflicted with this disease? Specific Questions:
Does HIV/AIDS have a significant effect on teenage morality in the Philippines? Is there a significant effect on the influence of having
HIV/AIDS in the perception and treatment of people towards those with the disease?
The researchers brainstormed on possible titles and approach on this research study and both of them agreed on “THE EFFECT OF AIDS ON THE DECLINE OF TEENAGE MORALITY AND THE SOCIETY’S PERCEPTION ON HIV-POSITIVE FILIPINOS”.
To begin with this research, the researchers first explored the Benavides Library and the internet regarding the topic. After which, the researchers came up with enough sources and ideas and then proceeded with the study.
The researchers then used the descriptive survey method in gathering data. This type of research aims to ascertain the respondents’ perspectives and answers in a structured and objective manner. More than that, it is easier, cheaper, and more importantly, very effective to use. They used questionnaires as their primary gathering data instrument, and had 30 questions in it which are mostly close-ended and multiple choices questions.
The respondents were randomly selected but were all students of the University of Santo Tomas. Their age range is from 17-25 years old and it is evenly distributed between both genders.
Next comes the tabulation and tallying of data. With the data gathered the following were proven.
First, most or almost 98% of the population are still cautious and weary of having AIDS. This means that they are aware of HIV/AIDS and its dangers and that they are avoiding the possibility of being infected with this disease.
Secondly, as shown in Figure 1.2, a bigger portion of the population, with 55% says that HIV/AIDS is not something to be ashamed of. This only proves that the society’s perception about HIV/AIDS and those infected with it is not much of a big deal. A bigger portion is still open-minded and accepting of the people with such illness. Moreover, as illustrated in Figure 2.6, 46% of the population are not particular with homosexuals having the highest risk of obtaining the disease. This only shows that the society is not demonizing homosexuals into this category.
However, in Figure 3.0, 62% of the population says that sometimes, people with HIV/AIDS are pitiful and are embarrassing to the country. This shows that there are times when the society tends to judge people and be terrified of them but not all the time.
When it comes to society’s perception and current status of HIV/AIDS in the country, the following were proven:
First, 84% of the people knew that there is no cure for AIDS. Another 84% believes that it is a disease that incurs a lot of monetary needs. 62% of them are aware that this disease weakens our system and it is contagious. Much more, 22% of them are not oblivious to the fact that it is transmitted sexually. With this data, the researchers were able to come up with the knowledge that a lot of people and teenagers are aware of what is HIV/AIDS. Even more, a lot of them are aware of it being transmitted sexually.
Next, as shown in Figure 4.0, 44% believes that if the government would create help centers for the victims of HIV/AIDS, it would be of great aid to them. Also, as depicted in Figure 5.0, 90% believes that someday there would be a cure that could treat this illness. These findings reveal that a lot of people that is part of the society remain hopeful despite the dangers HIV/AIDS are throwing at us.
Also, in Figure 5.0, it is revealed that despite all the news circulating, 41% of the people still do not believe that the Philippines is a growing AIDS country. 35% of the population, as exposed in Figure 5.1, believes that in order for our country to grow, people must have concern for others. From this, we can surmise that knowledge of your status or condition would be a big help. If you are aware of carrying the disease, then do not attempt to transmit it to someone else.
Lastly, as displayed in table 6.0, when asked what they would do if they were to have HIV/AIDS, 44% answered that they would just go on with their lives. This reveals that Filipinos are optimistic and shows that HIV/AIDS is not capable of bringing them down.
The researchers would also like to discover whether there is a significant correlation between the rise of HIV/AIDS cases in the Philippines and the decline of teenage morality. With that, the following results were found out:
Figure 1.0 shows that most of the respondents are living with their parents. Moreover, Table 1.0 also shows that 35 respondents are still considered to be teenagers.
It’s been discovered that 40% of the respondents opt to use condoms in the future as shown in Figure 2.1. 33% of them say that they would use condoms as a protective measure against HIV/AIDS and pregnancy as displayed in Figure 2.2. Granted that we are living in a catholic country, and given that the church’s stand regarding condoms are firm, it is then safe to say that the rise of HIV/AIDS in the country forces the youth of today to use condoms to avoid getting this disease and to avoid pregnancy. This shows a decline in morality amongst the youth.
Moreover, Table 2.2 shows that 18% of the respondents have admitted having sex and that 89% of the respondents who answered yes have experienced the sexual intercourse when they were below 18 years old. This data shows that more and more teenagers nowadays are committing pre-marital sex – a clear sign of decline in teenage morality.
CHAPTER 4
CONLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
CONCLUSION:
And with all the data gathered, the researchers were able to deduce the following:
The current status of HIV/AIDS in the Philippines is alarming. Researches show that every 90 minutes one Filipino is infected with this illness. It’s really frightening to know that it’s becoming epidemic in our society now. Nonetheless, a large part of the researchers’ respondents answered that they do not consider the Philippines as one of the HIV countries.
The researchers were also able to deduce that the people with HIV/AIDS in the Philippines have nothing to fear because a lot of Filipinos believe that HIV/AIDS is not to be ashamed of. Much more, homosexuals who are boxed into having HIV/AIDS are also freed from the chains that bind them there because a bigger portion of the sample thinks that homosexuals are not particularly at risk in having HIV/AIDS. However, there would be inevitable instances wherein people with this disease are to be pitied upon and be judged by other people.
It was also discovered that there is a significant correlation between teenage morality and the rapid increase in HIV/AIDS in the country. The rapid increase in HIV/AIDS cases in the country poses a big threat to people who are doing sexual intercourse. With that, they resort to the usage of condoms to avoid getting HIV/AIDS and to avoid pregnancy. Since we are in a Catholic country, it’s then no wonder, a decline of morality for the youth to use such. Not only are we stopping life, but most of the teenagers are also committing pre-marital sex.
Having HIV/AIDS has an effect towards the perception and treatment of people towards those with the disease. It was found out that some people will avoid them. Some will judge them. And some, might sometimes pity and be embarrassed for them.
And with this results, the researchers therefore conclude that the epidemic brought about by the rise of HIV/AIDS cases has an effect on the decline of teenage morality and of the perception of the society towards people with the said disease hire in the Philippines. RECOMMENDATIONS:
This research study is far from perfect. There are still a lot of flaws and a lot of improvement is still possible. With that, the researchers would like to future researchers of the same topic the following: 1.) More time and resources should be allotted on data gathering of any studies after this. The researchers’ data gathering was limited, due to time constraints, thus making them hasten every step they make. 2.) It is also recommended
that the respondents of the study be more diverse, not only focusing on the University of Santo Tomas students, but also working, non-working, and even house-employed citizens around Manila. By doing so, the research will be more concise and informational. Moreover, a sample size of 50 respondents for a population size of almost 8 million is not enough. The research study would be strongly unrealistic in a sense because it does not represent not even at least 25% of the population. 3.) The researchers also recommend the use of the SPSS program in tallying and tabulating your data. It would greatly aid and make the workload easier as it simplifies the usually manual computation of facts and figures. Not only, that, it makes the analysis and chart-creation process for all the functions are already made available there. 4.) Also, it is highly recommended to use a wide range of sources as not to make assumptions and generalizations on parts that demand specific information and facts. 5.) The researchers would also like to seek the help of professionals and specialists regarding this one. It would be difficult to just rely on books and journals for the knowledge of someone whose been studying or working on this one is incomparable. 6.) Moreover, the researchers would like to recommend a more concise and specific survey. Also, pat of this is for the future researches to make sure that every respondent answers the surveys and the questions truthfully and honestly. It’s difficult on the part of the researcher to actually tabulate the data that has been played upon by the respondent.
APPENDIX
A.) LETTERS
July 9, 2013
Enrique T. Ona
Secretary of Health
Department of Health
Dear Mr. Ona,
Greetings in the name of St. Thomas Aquinas!
The University of Santo Tomas is an institution well-known for its devotion and dedication in helping its country towards progress. In line with that, it follows the 3 C’s – compassion, competence, and commitment of which envisions in providing the constituents of the Philippines the best of what they deserve. And because of that, as a junior communication arts undergraduate of the University of Santo Tomas, I’m taking my share as I take part in this endeavor.
Currently, with the advent of new discoveries and technologies, there have also been rampant changes and problems in the society. One of which is the dilemma regarding the issue about health – most especially about distressing the issue about Human Immunodeficiency Virus or the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) of which is becoming a big threat to our society. This issue had been around for quite a few decades and what’s alarming is that it’s becoming epidemic and more widespread than ever.
In lieu of that, I am currently conducting a study about HIV/AIDS and its effects on the society. We all know that as of the moment, there is no known cure for the said disease and people with this illness is often abhorred by the society.
In order to further proceed with my research, I am in need of your help by providing me with details and information you have at hand regarding this issue. This would greatly help me in my research and rest assured that all data transferred to me would be used wisely and for my own perusal only.
I am hoping for your kindest response! Thank you and God bless!
Sincerely yours,
Vince Dominic C. Gapit
Researcher
University of Santo Tomas
July 9, 2013
Enrique T. Ona
Secretary of Health
Department of Health
Dear Mr. Ona,
Greetings in the name of St. Thomas Aquinas!
Human-Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) has always been a rampant and sometimes vulgar word of mouth among the citizens of the Philippines. HIV positive people are always hiding in the dark, afraid of the criticisms from their co-Filipinos and suffer their pain alone or with only a choice number of people whom they trust not to embarrass them.
As a concerned citizen and a student of the University of Santo Tomas, studying AB Communication Arts, I wish to free the minds of my co-Filipinos from the stereotypes and single-mindedness they have for these infected individuals.
I, Krysia Chiara A. Arciaga, am hereby requesting the permission to acquire some information from your researches to be used in my own research paper.
I am hoping for your kind consideration. Thank you and God Bless!
Sincerely Yours,
Krysia Chiara A. Arciaga
Researcher
University of Santo Tomas
B.) SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE
Greetings of peace! We are third year communication arts students and we are currently making a research about HIV/AIDS. In line with that, we are borrowing a part of your time in answering the survey we have prepared. Thank you and God bless!
1. Name (optional):
2. Age: (Scale)
3. Gender (Nominal)
ð Male (1)
ð Female (2)
4. What is your civil status? (Nominal)
ð Single (1)
ð Married (2)
ð Separated (3)
ð Widow (4)
ð Widower (5)
5. Occupation: (Nominal)
6. Where do you live? (Nominal)
ð Urban Area (1)
ð Rural Area (2)
ð Other (specify) (3)
7. Who do you live with most of the time? (Nominal)
ð With both parents (1)
ð With father only (2)
ð With mother only (3)
ð With brother/sister (4)
ð With aunt/uncle (5)
ð With wife/husband (6)
ð With boyfriend/ (7)
ð girlfriend (8)
ð With grandparents (9)
ð With friends (10)
ð In a Self-Help Centre (11)
ð Other (12)
8. Is HIV something that you should be cautious of? (Nominal)
ð Yes (1)
ð No (2)
9. How many HIV positive people do you personally know? (Ordinal) 0 1 2 3 4 others
10. Do you think having the disease/virus is something to be ashamed of? (Nominal) ð Yes (1)
ð No (2)
11. Do you have a partner (girlfriend or boyfriend)? (Nominal) ð Yes (1) ð No (2)
12. Do you do have more than one partner? (Nominal)
ð Yes (1)
ð No (2)
13. Have you ever had sexual intercourse? (Nominal)
ð Yes (1)
ð No (2)
ð Not sure (3)
14. If you answered yes, how old were you the first time you had sexual intercourse? (Scale) ð 14 years and younger (1)
ð Between 15 – 18 years (2)
ð Older than 18 years (3)
15. Have you ever considered yourself at risk of being infected with HIV or a sexually transmitted infection? (Nominal) ð Yes (1)
ð No (2)
ð I don’t know (3)
16. Would you use condoms in future? (Nominal)
ð Yes (1)
ð Maybe (2)
ð No (3)
ð I don’t know (4)
17. Why would you use condoms in future? (Nominal)
ð Protect against HIV/AIDS (1)
ð Protect against STIs (2)
ð Protect against pregnancy (3)
ð Other (4)
18. Do you know anyone who is infected with HIV? (Nominal)
ð Yes (1)
ð No (2)
19. Do you believe that homosexuals have higher risks of having HIV than heterosexuals? (Ordinal) ð Absolutely (1)
ð Not particularly (2)
ð Not al all (3)
ð I don’t care (4)
20. Do you know of any antidote for HIV/AIDS? (Nominal)
ð Yes (1)
ð No (2)
21. Is AIDS an expensive disease? (Nominal)
ð Yes (1)
ð No (2)
22. Do you see the HIV positive people pitiful or an embarrassment to the country? (Ordinal) ð Yes (1)
ð Sometimes (2)
ð Never (3)
23. What do you know about HIV/AIDS? (Nominal)
? It’s contagious (1)
? It weakens your system (2)
? It’s transmitted via sexual intercourse (3) ? Others(4)
24. What are the ways HIV/AIDS could be transmitted? (Nominal) ð Sexually (1)
ð Through the bloodstream (2)
ð Others (3)
25. Will it help HIV positive people if the government helped create a center in which they could go and be cured at the expense of being exposed? (Nominal) ð Yes (1)
ð No(2)
ð I don’t know (3)
26. Do you think there will still be a cure that will help cure HiV/AIDS?(Nominal) ? Yes (1)
? No (2)
27. Will you consider the Philippines one of the countries who have increasing number of HIV positives? (Ordinal) ð Absolutely (1)
ð Not particularly (2)
ð Not at all (3)
ð I don’t care (4)
28. What do you think will help prevent the spread of the HIV/AID virus in the Philippines and around the world? (Nominal) ? Discipline (1)
? Concern for the Others (2)
? Celibacy (3)
? Others (4)
29. How would you treat people with HIV/AIDS? (Nominal)
? Avoid them(1)
? Act normal around them (2)
? Judge them(3)
? Others
30. If you had AIDS, what would you do? (Nominal)
? Avoid other People (1)
? Isolate Myself (2)
? Continue with My Life (3)
? Others (4)
ARCIAGA, 2013
GAPIT, 2013
REFERENCES:
1. Carmichael, M. (May 30, 2006). How it Began: HIV Before Aids. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved September 24, 2013, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/aids/virus/origins.html 2. Cayabyab, M. J. (August 29, 2013). One Filipino gets HIV every 90 minutes – AIDS Council. GMA News Online. Retrieved September 24, 2013, from http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/324043/lifestyle/healthandwellness/one-filipino-gets-hiv-every-90-minutes-aids-council 3. Nordqvist, C. (May 13, 2012). What is AIDS? What is HIV? Medical News Today. Retrieved September 24, 2013, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/17131.php 4. Trivedi, A. (July 24, 2013). Every Three Hours Someone in the Philippines Gets HIV. Time Inc. Retrieved September 24, 2013, from

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